This research paper employs input-output pricing model based on ecological-economic approach to investigate the impacts of internal factors as well as external forces on agriculture commodities. To empirically test our model, we select two different methodologies such as the optimal scaling regression with nonlinear transformations and feedforward artificial neural networks. Our sample includes data related to price of agriculture and energy commodities (cocoa, coffee and crude oil), production of crops and livestock, emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from agriculture from 1961 to 2019. Results find a bidirectional relationship between cocoa price and coffee price explaining by the fact that commodity-dependent countries often use kindred production landscapes and similar supply chain management when dealing with coffee and cocoa. Therefore, effect of supply side shocks may be transmitted from one market to another. We also present evidence that greenhouse gas emissions have strong effect on commodity price, thus we encourage an integrated approach including both concrete technological and proactive managerial measures in order to mitigate global warming impacts on the food system. We believe that these findings will be of interest to commodity producers, asset managers and academics who look a better understanding of the dynamics of commodity markets.
JEL classification numbers: C50, Q02, Q57.
Keywords: Agriculture commodity, Input-output pricing model, Ecological-economic approach, Artificial neural networks, Optimal scaling regression.
ISSN: 1792-7552 (Online)