The main purpose of this study is to explore whether the ambush effect of the consumer
on unofficial sponsors will affect the sponsorship
effect of official sponsors during the international sports events. The results
of the study show that ambush marketing has weakened the effectiveness of
official sponsored events between official and unofficial sponsors.
Event-sponsor congruence has a significant effect on both official cognitive
and attitude effectiveness. Suggestions and implications are discussed
and would provide insights for event marketers to develop strategies to prevent
the impact of ambush marketing.
JEL classification numbers: M300, M310
Keywords: Ambush marketing, Official sponsor, Congruence, Effectiveness