The main purpose of this study is to explore whether the ambush effect of the consumer on unofficial sponsors will affect the sponsorship effect of official sponsors during the international sports events. The results of the study show that ambush marketing has weakened the effectiveness of official sponsored events between official and unofficial sponsors. Event-sponsor congruence has a significant effect on both official cognitive and attitude effectiveness. Suggestions and implications are discussed and would provide insights for event marketers to develop strategies to prevent the impact of ambush marketing.
JEL classification numbers: M300, M310
Keywords: Ambush marketing, Official sponsor, Congruence, Effectiveness
ISSN: 1792-7552 (Online)