The investigation of transcultural differences in pain expression, perception and management. A review was conducted in Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 1999 to 2014. Inclusion criteria were: English language, direct relation to the topic and methodology quality. Data independent extraction was performed by 2 authors from 14 finally selected original studies. The physical pain is more easily verbally expressed by Filipinos. The Afro-Americans have lower pain threshold. The use of opioids is not always acceptable (Africa,Saudi Arabia,Afrikaans). Herbals (Asians,Saudis), prayer (African Americans), and different kind of music are used for pain management. Racial related biases in pain assessment/management were reported. Healthcare professionals should be trained in order to perform a culturally effective pain assessment and management.
Keywords: pain, cultural, transcultural differences, pain treatment, pain expression, nursing.