The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is increasing rapidly worldwide, bringing about an enormous economic burden for societies. Dietary habits play an important role in the manifestation and treatment of this disease. Results from epidemiological studies and clinical trials, suggest that adherence to the Mediterranean diet may exert beneficial influence on glycemic control and prevention of this condition. We conducted a systematic review aiming to determine the impact of the Mediterranean diet on glycemic control and diabetes incidence. Electronic databases, PubMed and Google Scholar, were searched for available publications that assessed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on type 2 diabetes. Thirty nine studies met the inclusion criteria, sixteen explored the impact of the Mediterranean diet on type 2 diabetes incidence, fifteen explored the impact of the Mediterranean diet on type 2 diabetes treatment, nine explored the impact of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes indices, as components of Metabolic syndrome and four examined the impact of the Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular risk factors, including type 2 diabetes. Current guidelines and recommendations from all the major scientific associations, strongly encourage a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern for primary and secondary prevention of major chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes.