The number of healthcare associated infections is of global concern, as is their increasing resistance to antibiotics. The complex patient environment and the autonomy of home care nursing practice pose a specific challenge for infection control practices in the patientís home. The objective of this study was to identify key areas of concern in home care nursing practice with a view to improving patient safety and infection control practices. After a review of current evidence for infection control practices and hygiene in the home care setting, a postal questionnaire was designed to evaluate current practice. 206 home care nurses responded of the 866 polled in the Department of Seine and Marne (Paris region) in 2012 (24%). The results suggest that independent home care nurses in the Paris region are experiencing difficulties in implementing standard infection control practices. Only 8.7% of the sample group complied with all the legal requirements for clinical waste management. Availability of personal protective equipment was limited. The lack of hospital liaison when patients are discharged to home care services is a major source of risk for patient and professional safety. This study will enable the heath authority to define a strategy to respond to the difficulties encountered by home care nurses, thus improving patient and practitioner safety.