Journal of Applied Medical Sciences

Colorectal Cancer in Patients Younger than 45 years old: Clinical Aspects and Prognosis at the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon

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  • Abstract

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is on a constant rise in Africa and increases with age, particularly above 50 years old. This study aimed firstly to determine the clinical, endoscopic, and histological aspects of CRC, and secondly, to evaluate the prognosis of CRC in young patients under 45 years at the Yaounde Central Hospital. Methodology: Over a period of 10 years, we studied the records of patients operated on for CRC at the Yaounde Central Hospital. The study included all patients under 45 years old suffering from CRC. It excluded patients older than 45 years and patients below 45 who did not suffer from CRC and/or had a different type of tumor. Results: Overall, out of 264 digestive tract cancer cases operated on, 41 patients under 45 years had a CRC, representing a prevalence rate of 15.53%. The most common clinical presentation mode was rectorrhagia, occurring in 70.7% of cases (n=29). The most common endoscopic anatomical location was the rectum, 58.5% (n=24). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type, with 23 cases (56.1%). Overall survival after 5 years stood at 43.7%. Conclusion: CRC here is of rectal seat and adenocarcinoma type. The major issue with the disease is late diagnosis, which would explain the severity of prognosis from the outset.