Aeromagnetic data over a part of Maiduguri and Environs of the Southern Chad Basin, Nigeria was analyzed. The aeromagnetic anomaly map, its qualitative and quantitative interpretation helped in identifying the nature and depth of the magnetic sources in the study region. Depth to the basement of the basin structure ranges from about 0.5 km in the southern part of the study area and gets deeper toward the northern part up to 3.0 km. Lineament structural map and magnetic depth map values have been utilized to construct the interpretation of the main subsurface structures affecting the studied area, which correlate with the previous studies of the Chad Basin. The study area is characterized by predominant magnetic lineament trend in NE-SW (North East-South West) direction and subordinate E-W (East-West) direction. Results of the Spectral analysis method enabled delineation of the lithology and mapping the depths of subsurface geologic structures. The results also showed the most significant structural (NE-SW) trends affecting the distribution of these magnetic anomalies in the study area. The spectral analysis employed in depth calculations and temperature at depth calculations helped in revealing the possible subsurface structure of the area that assisted in delineation of promising area for hydrocarbon exploration.