Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering

Landslides in Hareer Anticline, Central Northern Part of Iraq

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  • Abstract

    Hareer anticline is a double plunging anticline with NW SE trends, very strange and special hinge zone, hence its northwestern plunge is normal but towards southeast the hinge zone becomes very wide. The northeastern limb is very gentle with dip amount that ranges from (5 15) whereas the southwestern limb is very steep with dip amount that ranges from (45 85). The well bedded and very hard carbonates of the Bekhme Formation form the carapace of Hareer Mountain, with small exposures of the Qamchuqa Formation in the southwestern limb within few deeply cut valleys. The main reasons of the landslides are the presence of soft to fairly hard succession of marl and limestone in the lowermost part of the Bekhme Formation and the steeply dipping beds of the southwestern limb of Hareer anticline. The wet climate during the sliding and the gravitational forces have played significant role in triggering and acceleration of the two landslides that have moved short distance from the mountain. This is attributed to the presence of cliffs of the Khurmala and Pila Spi Formation at the end of the slope; the cliffs played as retaining walls to stop the sliding. To estimate the age of the two landslides in Hareer anticline, the Exposure Dating Method is used. The diverted and blocked valleys, the developed small alluvial fans from the slid mass and the weathering status of the rock blocks within the slid mass are used to estimate the age of the two landslides. The age is estimated to be few thousand years, which means during late Holocene.

    Keywords: Landslide, Alluvial fans, Debris flow, Iraq.