Since early civilization and the farmers in Mesopotamia are suffering
from the soil salinity. This problem had caused the transfer of power from the
Sumerians to the Babylonians in ancient history. Great efforts and research
have been made since the beginning of the 20th century to overcome this
salinity problem. Experts have concluded that the main reason for salinity is
the salt content of irrigation water and the shallow saline groundwater derived
from the irrigation activities. General schemes were planned, which involve
building a new system of drains in parallel to the irrigation network. The
backbone of the drainage system in Mesopotamia is the Main Outfall Drain (MOD).
Large works such as Musayab Main Drain, Main Outfall Drain, Great Gharraf
Drain, East Euphrates Drain were implemented, but there are still large needs
for much more work to be done.
Salinity, Musayab Main Drain, Main Outfall Drain, MOD, Great Gharraf Drain,
East Euphrates Drain.