Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering

Geomorphology of Garmiyan Area Using GIS Technique, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

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  • Abstract

    The goals of the present study are to investigate, explore and assess the geomorphologic characteristics of a part of Garmiyan area through highlighting the forming and controlling factors of the geomorphology, mapping the landforms and reveal the geomorphologic processes that created them in Garmiyan area. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing through satellite images and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) have facilitated the investigation in this large area with more accuracy. The Garmiyan area is a part of Garmiyan area located about (62 Km) south of Sulaimani City and (104 km) east of Kirkuk city. It lies between longitudes (45o10- - 45o32-) E and latitude (34o40-- 35o02-) N. It is within unstable shelf where 3.9% of it lie within the High Folded Zone and 96.1 % within the Foothill Zone. The geologic formations are forming 57.93% and the Quaternary deposits are forming 42.07%. Clastic sedimentary rocks are forming nearly 99% of the total area, while non clastic sedimentary rocks are forming nearly 1%. The topography of the studied area is greatly influenced by lithologic characteristics of the geologic units. The factors, which influence the geomorphology of the studied area, are tectonics, lithology, climate, vegetation and humans. Hence the geomorphologic evolution is controlled by many geomorphologic processes. The main endogenic process is uplifting of the western and north western sides of the studied area which was the final stage of Zagros Fold Thrust Belt formation during the Arabia–Eurasia collision. The main exogenic processes include weathering, erosion, fluvial, hillslope processes, karstification and anthropogenic processes. The main geomorphologic landforms recognized in the studied area are structural, denudational, fluvial, solutional and anthropogenic landforms. Anthropogenic landforms produced by excavation by road cuttings, quarrying and farming. The geomorphic landforms indicate that deformation is propagating from northeast to southwest.