Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering

Origins and Utilizations of the Main Natural Depressions in Iraq

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  • Abstract


    Many natural depressions occur in Iraq with different origins, sizes, shapes and utilization. In this study, nine main depressions are studied and discussed, especially their origins, they are: Tharthar, Hab’baniyah, Raz’zazah, Ga’ara, Umm Chaimin, Salman, Slaibat Dukan, and Derbendikhan. The study was achieved by using satellite images of high accuracy, geological maps and reports, historical and irrigation data. All the mentioned depressions apart from Salman and Ga’ara depression are used for irrigation uses, especially for flood control others are used for electric power generation; or has no any use. The study revealed that some of the depressions are formed due to karstification, others due to tectonic activity and some due to combination of karstification and tectonic activity. However, the role of fluvial and wind erosion cannot be ignored in the development of the depressions. 


    Keywords: Tharthar, Hab’baniyah, Raz’zazah, Ga’ara, Umm Chaimin, Salman, Slaibat, Dukan, Derbendikhan.