relies greatly on the water of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. These rivers rise
in Turkey. As far as the water quality of the Tigris River, when it enters the
Turkish- Iraqi border is considered normal where the total dissolved salts do
not exceed 450ppm. In Iraq, the salinity increases downstream and it reached
undesirable limits downstream Baghdad. As far as the Euphrates River is
concerned, the salinity of its water reached 600ppm at the Syrian-Iraqi border.
The salinity increases downstream and it reaches 1500ppm downstream Kufa city.
This indicates that the salinity of the major Rivers (Tigris, Euphrates and
Karkheh) that are supply Shatt Al-Arab River with water is increasing with
time. Causes of water quality deterioration is due to several factors. These
are: i) construction of dams and irrigation projects in the upper parts of the
catchments and the reduction of flow of these rivers ii) Al-Tharthar Scheme,
where some water from this reservoir having salinity of 2500ppm is diverted to
the River Euphrates iii) Agricultural and Irrigation Projects iv) dumping
wastewater directly to the rivers v) Waste of Wars vi) Climate Change vii)
disposal of solid waste directly to the rivers viii) Population Growth. All
these factors are affecting the population and the environment in Iraq.
River, Euphrates River, Water Quality, Environment, Iraq