Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering

Topography and Climate of Iraq

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  • Abstract


    Iraq is located between geographic coordinates 33 00 N, 44 00 E, and occupies a total area of 437,072 square kilometers. Land forms 432,162 square kilometers while water forms 4,910 square kilometers of the total area. Iraq is bordered by Turkey from the north. Iran from the east, Syria and Syria from the west, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait from the south. Iraq can be divided according to the nature of the land terrain into 4 regions (Mountain Region, Plateau and Hills Regions, The Mesopotamian plain and Jazera and Western Plateau). The climate is mainly of continental, subtropical semi-arid type. The mountain region is of Mediterranean climate. In general, rainfall occurs from December to February or November to April in the mountain region. During winter the average daily temperature is about 16oC dropping at night to 2oC with possibility of frost. In summer however, it is very hot with an average temperature of over 45oC during July and August dropping to 25oC at night.


    Keywords: Topography, Climate, Iraq.