a dam is built, its safety becomes a constant concern for the owner, the public
and for governments. Therefore, continuous observation through routine
inspections and safety reviews become necessary. Acting as protectors of public
safety, governments and professional organizations save no effort in the
promulgation of legislations and laying out guidelines for such inspections and
reviews. These issues are discussed here starting with the basic first step of
visual inspections by the operators and the follow up of detailed safety
reviews by specialists. Careful visual inspections assisted by instrumentation
measurements may reveal an early negative issue such as, but not limited to,
increased seepage, increased uplift pressure, signs of weakness like cracking
in the body of the dam, or damsí slope sloughing, and even damaged hydraulic
control equipment. Documenting and reporting these observation helps in taking
remedial measures in good time and may lead to more intensive safety reviews.
Suggested check lists for the inspection engineers are given here, but these
may be tailored for each dam according to its needs. These lists cover issues
common to both embankment and concrete dams, and include other specific issues
related to each type of them. Metal equipment take their share by listing such
areas as corrosion, fatigue and cracking, tear, and wear and so on.
Instrumentation measurements are also given their due consideration by giving
brief mention of types of measurements needed and points to be observed in
instrumentation control work. Finally, guidelines, rules, and legislations for
Dam Safety Reviews are generally discussed giving examples from four countries
in the world.
Keywords: Normal Human Caused Incidents, Extraordinary Human Caused
Incidents, SCADA Systems, ICS System, Software, ICT Technology, Cyberspace, digital
technology, Remote Control, hackers, terrorism.