Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering

An emissions inventory for non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) in Switzerland

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  • Abstract


    Non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) contributes a significant part of the total energy consumption and air pollutant emissions of mobile sources. The latest update of the Swiss non-road emissions inventory (FOEN 2015) quantifies energy and fuel consumption as well as regulated and four non-regulated pollutants for the period 1980-2050. Emissions are calculated using a bottom-up model in which operating hours segmented by machine type, motor type, size classes with respective nominal power, and age are multiplied with load factors. The resulting energy demand is multiplied with fuel consumption and emission factors. While energy consumption of NRMM has increased by 5% between 2000 and 2015, the emissions of most air pollutants are decreasing due to the introduction of stricter emission limits. Agricultural and construction machines are the largest sources of NOx and PM emissions; regarding CO and HC emissions, garden-care appliances are more relevant than construction machinery, however. The share of the non-road sector in total mobile energy consumption has slightly increased to 9% in 2015. The share in air pollutant emissions is even higher due to the time lag in emission standards. The transition from combustion engines towards electric motors is in progress, mainly in the industrial and residential sectors.