Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering

Real-world driving, energy demand and emissions of electrified vehicles

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  • Abstract


    Alternative vehicle drivetrain technologies as used in electric vehicles (EV) are expected to play a major role in future passenger car markets. Yet, there is a lack of knowledge on the benefits or drawbacks. The aim of this paper is to present energy consumption and emission data of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) taken from two measurement campaigns. The BEV fleet is equipped with OBD data loggers, collecting information on the state of charge (SOC). Results for the chosen BEV show seasonal variations with an up to 60% higher energy demand in winter. Taking data on energy consumption at charging station, an average annual total energy demand of 19 kWh/100 km is computed. Well-to-tank NOx emissions per charging event are calculated based on hourly electricity mix data in Germany. Survey results of the BEV users show that there is a positive perception of EV, although only a minority is convinced that EV are suitable for daily use. In the second measurement campaign, different EURO6 passenger cars are tested on a dynamometer at 23C and 0C. Results for a PHEV of the C segment show that exhaust emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases strongly depend on the vehicle`s operating strategy and ambient temperatures, influencing the electric range, the share of ICE use and the catalyst temperature notably. This in turn shows the importance of an appropriate design of PHEV.