Most of the Mesopotamian Plain is covered by Quaternary sediments
among which the flood plain sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers are
the most dominant parts. Aeolian sediments; however, also cover considerable
areas at different parts of the plain in forms of sand dunes, sand sheets and
Nebkhas. The dunes are the most common form and they are creeping as well as
sand sheets in vast areas causing desertification. The main reasons causing
this is climate change, abandoning of agricultural areas. Salinization is
another significant problem in the plain whereby the affected areas are growing
in size and the concentration of the salt in the soil, as well as the
groundwater is increasing rapidly. The increase in salinization is due to miss-
management of water resources, and the increasing salinity of the surface and
ground water which due to the use of irrigation water supplied from Al-Tharthar
Depression (lake) and the Main Outfall Drain.
Sand dunes, Groundwater, Salinization, Solonization.