Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering

Stratigraphy of the Mesopotamian Plain: A Critical Review

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  • Abstract  
     
    The Mesopotamian Plain is part of the Mesopotamia which extends for vast area bigger than the plain. The Mesopotamian Plain is covered totally by Quaternary sediments among which the fluvial origin is the most prevailing and more specifically the flood plain sediments. The flood plain sediments are Holocene in age, whereas the Pleistocene sediments are restricted to alluvial fan sediments and river terraces. The flood plain sediments cover majority of the Mesopotamian Plain, whereas the alluvial sediments are restricted to the northern eastern, western and southern peripheral parts only. The extreme south-eastern part is covered by the tidal flat and sabkha sediments. Marshes and shallow depressions are also covered by Holocene sediments which are contaminated by Aeolian sediments. However, Aeolian sediments occur in different forms; among them are the sand dunes, sand sheets and Nebkhas. The distal parts of the alluvial fan sediments interfinger with the sheet run off sediments which in turn interfinger with the flood plain sediments. Moreover, the alluvial fan sediments interfinger laterally by other fan sediments or merge laterally together to form Bajada.    

    Keywords: Fluvial sediments, Pleistocene, Holocene, marshes, Alluvial fan sediments, Aeolian sediments.