The first steps taken by Man in the long
journey towards the establishment of the first known settled society. From the
end of the last ice age to this, point which had taken 12000 years. The book
explains the changes in climate, which made the first appearance of agriculture
and the domestication of animals possible after many thousands of years of food
collection and hunting for food. The first attempts to build settled
communities are explained, which finally were calumniated in the establishment
of stable settlements at the south of modern-day Iraq, where irrigated
agriculture was practiced for the first time in history on the edges of its southern
marshes. The people known as the Ubaid who were attracted to this place by the
temperate climate and the rich resources of the land found such settlement as
Ur, Eridu and Uruk. These people, explains the book, practiced irrigated
agriculture and pottery and it was from archaeological findings of such pottery
and the symbols engraved on them that their history became known to us.
However, not having any form of writing, explains the book, the reason why
historians had placed al- Ubaid people in the prehistory period, as they have
not passed to us any documented written history. The beginning of history as
defined by historians and ascertained by the author begins only with the
invention of writing which was accomplished by the next People to live in this
area who were the Sumerians.
Keywords: Ubaid, Ur, Eridu; Uruk, Iraq.