Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering

Origin of Different Types of Isolated Hills, Examples from Iraq

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  • Abstract

    Al-JaziraIraqi is located almost in the central part of the Middle East with diverse topography and different exposed sedimentary rocks covering an area of about 443 000 Km2. These diverse topography, lithology and tectonic activities have contributed in development of many types of natural isolated hills of different sizes and shapes; however, anthropogenic (artificial) hills of different shapes and sizes are developed too in different parts of the country. The main reason for development of the isolated hills is the differential weathering and erosion acting on the flat lying beds in the Western and Southern Deserts, as well in the Jazira Plain, which is located in the central western part of the country, besides some diagenetic processes. Anthropogenic hills are located in the Mesopotamia Plain witnessing different civilizations and in the northern central part; witnessing the Assyrian civilization and many others. The natural isolated hills are formed in forms of buttes, mesas and small plateaus, called "Tal, Tel, Marqab, Gara, whereas the anthropogenic hills have mainly flat lying pyramid shape with circular base; of different sizes, called either "Zaqoora" or "Ishan".